Table 3

Estimated associations between vaccination status and COVID-19 severity

OutcomeIntensive careRespiratory support
Influenza vaccine0.919***0.927**0.818***0.825***
(0.864 to 0.977)(0.871 to 0.986)(0.759 to 0.880)(0.767 to 0.887)
Sample size39 15639 15639 74539 745
  • Table 3 compares the need for intensive care (columns 1 and 2) as well as invasive respiratory support (columns 3 and 4) among patients with and without influenza vaccination. Columns 1 and 3 control for age and treatment facility only. Columns 2 and 4 also control for SES and comorbidities. All estimates are based on multivariable logistic regression models. Estimated coefficients are expressed as ORs with 95% CIs in parentheses. SEs are adjusted for clustering at the facility level using the Huber-White cluster-robust variance estimator. Age controls correspond to separate binary indicator variables for each 10-year age group. SES controls include gender, race and educational attainment group. Missing data on comorbidities and SES were imputed using multiple imputations using chained equations.

  • *p<0.10, **p<0.05, ***p<0.01.

  • SES, socioeconomic status.