Table 1

General characteristics of the studies included (created by the authors)

CategoryNumber of studies
Number of comparisons
 Third-party payer83175
Model type
 Discrete event simulation37
 Economic evaluation alongside clinical trial11
Time horizon
Discount rate for cost
 Not reported312
Discount rate for utility*
 Not reported311
Clinical data source
 Published literature81181
 Published literature and evidence synthesis317
 Published literature and registry database1118
 Evidence synthesis25
 Registry database33
Utility data source
 Published literature93209
 Published literature and registry database411
Currency year
Cost-effectiveness threshold
 Gross domestic products-based2345
Cost-effectiveness result*
 Not cost-effective2458
  • *The total number of studies are more than 100 because individual studies applied multiple methods.