Table 1

Characteristics of included studies. All studies aimed to identify individuals currently infected with SARS-CoV-2. The reference standard was RT-PCR performed in the laboratory setting (created by the authors)

Study identifierPublication status
Study designSettingPurpose of testingLocation (recruitment period)Name of index testTotal number of study participantsPaediatric study participantsFunding/potential COI
Akingba*et al 35 Preprint (2021)Cross-sectionalCommunity testing site (mobile clinic)DSouth Africa (Nov 20)Panbio COVID-19 Ag Rapid Test6674139.0100†Median: 13,‡ IQR: 10–16,‡ range: 3–17‡None/none
Bianco*et al 37 Published (2021)Cross-sectionalHospital ED, hospital unitnrItaly
(Oct–Dec 20)
LumiraDx SARS-CoV-2 Ag Test907§165nr9.7Mean: 7.2, range: 0–18None/none
Dřevinek* et al 38 Preprint (2020)Cross-sectionalHospital TCD, A, SCzech Republic
(Oct 20)
1: Panbio COVID-19 Ag Rapid Test
2: Standard F COVID-19 FIA Ag
5913138.7‡32.3‡Median: 15,‡
IQR: 13.5–16,‡ range: 11–17‡
González-Donapetry et al 24 published (2021)Cross-sectionalHospital EDDSpain
(Sept–Oct 20)
Panbio COVID-19 Ag Rapid Test44044059.1100†Median: 3, IQR: 1–7, range:0–15None/none
Homza* et al 41 Published (2021)Cross-sectionalHospital TCD, ACzech Republic
ECOTEST COVID-19 Antigen Rapid Test4942458.345.8Mean: 13.17, SD: 2.79, range: 7–17Public/none
Kiyasu* †† et al 54 Preprint (2021)CohortHospital TCnrJapan
(Oct 20–Jan 21)
QuickNavi COVID-19 Ag18819068.94.4Median: 12,‡ IRQ: 6–15,‡ range: 0–17‡Private/yes
L’Huillier et al 25 Preprint (2021)Cross-sectionalHospital TCD, A, SSwitzerland (Nov 20–Mar 21)Panbio COVID-19 Ag Rapid Test88588550.164.8Median: 11.8, IQR: 9.0–14.3, range: 0–16Public/none
Möckel et al 26 Published (2021)Cross-sectionalHospital EDDGermany
(Oct–Nov 20)
Roche SARS-CoV-2 Rapid Antigen Test483196‡‡5587.1Median: 3, IQR: 1–9Public/none
Pilarowski et al 27 Published (2020)Cross-sectionalCommunity testing siteSUSA
(Nov–Dec 20)
BinaxNOW COVID-19 Ag Card3320209nrnr
Public, private/yes
Pollock et al 28aPublished (2021)Cross-sectionalCommunity testing siteSUSA
(Oct–Dec 20)
BinaxNOW COVID-19 Ag Card248292847.0‡10.7≤18
(69%‡ ≤ 13)
Pollock et al 29bPreprint (2021)Cross-sectionalCommunity testing siteSUSA
(Jan 21)
CareStart COVID-19 Antigen test160325346.2‡12.6≤18
(62%‡ ≤ 13)
Prince-Guerra et al 30 Published (2021)Cross-sectionalCommunity testing siteSUSA
(Nov 20)
BinaxNOW COVID-19 Ag Card3419236nrnr
Range: 10–17nr/none
Shah* et al 48 61 Published (2021)CohortCommunity testing siteSUSA
(Nov–Dec 20)
BinaxNOW COVID-19 Ag Card2024217nr53.4‡Range: 5–17Public/none
Sood et al 31 Published (2021)Cross-sectionalCommunity testing siteS, AUSA
(Nov–Dec 20)
BinaxNOW COVID-19 Ag Card142978349.523.5Range: 5–17, 65%: 5–12, 35%: 13–17Public, private/yes
Takeuchi*†† et al 50 Published (2021)CohortHospital TCD, AJapan
(Oct–Dec 20)
QuickNavi COVID-19 Ag120816461.654.9Median: 10,‡ IQR: 5-14, ‡ range: 0-17‡Private/yes
Torres* et al 51 Published (2021)Cross-sectionalHospital TCASpain
(Oct–Nov 20)
Panbio COVID-19 Ag Rapid Test6347347.90**Median: 13, range: 9–17None/none
Villaverde et al 32 Published (2021)CohortHospital EDDSpain
(Sept–Oct 20)
Panbio COVID-19 Ag Rapid Test16201620nr100†Range: 0–16Public/none
  • A: testing of asymptomatic individuals and at increased risk of infection due to previous exposure to SARS-CoV-2; D: diagnostic testing of symptomatic individuals; S: screening of individuals irrespective of symptoms (e.g. mass testing, pretravel testing).

  • *Study included due to unpublished paediatric study data obtained from author via author queries.

  • †Not explicitly stated, but as per inclusion criteria only study participants who are symptomatic.

  • ‡Own calculation.

  • §Analysis population (total number of study participants not reported).

  • ¶Value reported for whole study population.

  • **Not explicitly stated, but as per inclusion criteria only study participants who are asymptomatic.

  • ††The study reported by Kiyasu et al 54 is specified as ‘extension study’ of a previous study reported by Takeuchi et al.50 Both studies were included in this systematic review and considered as two separate studies due to different but overlapping recruitment periods, substantial differences in the proportion of paediatric study participants who were symptomatic and differences in how discordant RT-PCR test results were re-evaluated.

  • ‡‡The overall paediatric study population as defined by the authors consisted of n=202 individuals and included n=6 adult chaperones.

  • COI, conflicts of interest; Hospital ED, hospital emergency department; Hospital TC, hospital test centre; nr, not reported; RT-PCR, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.