Table 2

Risk of bias (RoB) assessment tools recommended by Cochrane

Study designRoB tool
Randomised controlled trialsCochrane RoB 2.049
Non-randomised studies of interventionsROBINS-I50
Non-randomised studies of exposuresROBINS-E51
Diagnostic studiesQUADAS 252
Prognostic studiesPROBAST53
Systematic reviewsROBIS6
  • PROBAST, Prediction model Risk Of Bias Assessment Tool; QUADAS, Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies; RoB, risk of bias; ROBINS-E, Risk of Bias in Non-randomised Studies–of Exposures; ROBINS-I, ROBINS-of Interventions; ROBIS, Risk of Bias in Systematic Reviews.