Authors | PICO clear | Protocol registered* | Included study designs explained | Comprehensive search strategy* | Duplicate screening | Duplicate data extraction | Excluded studies listed* | Full description of included studies | RoB assessed* | Funding of included studies stated | Appropriate statistics (in MA)* | RoB considered (in MA) | RoB considered in interpretation* | Explanation of heterogeneity | Publication bias considered (in MA)* | Conflict of interest declared | Rating |
Zhang et al, 202131 | + | – | + | Partial+ | + | + | – | + | + | – | + | + | + | + | + | + | Critically low |
NCCMT, 202117 | + | – | + | Partial+ | – | – | + | + | + | – | N/A | N/A | – | – | N/A | + | Critically low |
Walsh et al, 202118 | + | + | + | Partial+ | + | + | – | + | + | – | N/A | N/A | + | + | N/A | + | Low |
Kourti et al, 202141 | + | – | + | Partial+ | + | + | – | + | + | – | N/A | N/A | – | + | N/A | + | Critically low |
Ayouni et al, 202120 | + | Partial+ | + | Partial+ | + | + | – | + | + | – | N/A | N/A | + | + | N/A | + | Low |
Talic et al, 202121 | + | Partial+ | + | Partial+ | + | + | – | + | + | – | + | + | + | + | + | + | Low |
Hammerstein et al, 202128 | + | – | + | Partial+ | + | – | – | + | + | – | N/A | N/A | – | + | N/A | + | Critically low |
Muhammed, 202022 | + | – | + | Partial+ | – | – | – | – | – | – | N/A | N/A | – | + | N/A | – | Critically low |
Bond et al, 202130 | + | – | + | Partial+ | + | – | + | + | + | – | N/A | N/A | + | + | N/A | + | Low |
Sharma et al, 202140 | + | Partial+ | + | Partial+ | + | + | – | + | + | – | + | + | – | + | + | + | Critically low |
Krishnaratne et al, 202242 | + | Partial+ | + | Partial+ | + | + | + | + | + | + | N/A | N/A | + | + | N/A | + | High |
Elharake et al, 202232 | + | – | + | Partial+ | + | + | – | + | – | – | N/A | N/A | – | – | N/A | + | Critically low |
Meherali et al, 202133 | + | Partial+ | + | Partial+ | + | + | – | + | + | – | N/A | N/A | + | + | N/A | + | Low |
Nussbaumer-Streit et al, 202023 | + | Partial+ | + | + | + | + | – | + | + | – | N/A | N/A | + | + | N/A | + | Low |
Samji et al, 202134 | + | Partial+ | + | Partial+ | + | + | – | + | + | – | N/A | N/A | + | + | N/A | + | Low |
Viner et al, 202024 | + | – | + | Partial+ | + | – | – | – | – | – | N/A | N/A | – | + | N/A | + | Critically low |
Viner et al, 202235 | + | Partial+ | + | + | + | + | – | + | + | – | N/A | N/A | + | + | N/A | + | Low |
Lehmann et al, 202236 | + | – | + | Partial+ | + | + | – | + | + | – | N/A | N/A | + | + | N/A | – | Critically low |
Panagouli et al, 202129 | + | – | + | Partial+ | + | + | – | + | + | – | N/A | N/A | + | + | N/A | + | Critically low |
Mendez-Brito et al, 202125 | + | – | + | Partial+ | + | – | – | + | + | – | N/A | N/A | + | + | N/A | + | Critically low |
Chaabane et al, 202126 | + | Partial+ | + | Partial+ | + | + | – | + | + | – | N/A | N/A | + | + | N/A | + | Low |
Chai et al, 202137 | + | + | – | Partial+ | – | – | – | + | + | – | + | + | + | + | + | + | Low |
Suk et al, 202027 | + | – | + | Partial+ | + | + | – | + | – | – | N/A | N/A | – | + | N/A | – | Critically low |
Vardavas et al, 202143 | + | – | + | Partial+ | + | + | – | + | – | – | N/A | N/A | – | + | N/A | + | Critically low |
Chang et al, 202139 | + | – | – | Partial+ | + | + | – | + | + | – | + | + | + | + | + | + | Critically low |
Caini et al, 202219 | + | – | + | Partial+ | – | + | – | + | + | – | + | + | + | + | + | + | Critically low |
Stars indicate critical domains. SRs with 0 or 1 non-critical flaw score ‘High’, studies with multiple non-critical flaws score ‘Medium’, studies with 1 critical flaw score ‘Low’ and studies with multiple critical flaws score ‘Critically low’. SRs are awarded a '+' or '-' depending on whether they satisfy each condition. SRs are awarded a Partial+ in ‘Protocol registered’ if they register a protocol, but the protocol is not comprehensive, and a Partial+ in ‘comprehensive search strategy’ if, for example, authors search at least two databases, but no not scan included articles’ bibliographies. Full details of the AMSTAR 2 appraisal tool are available at Shea et al.14
AMSTAR 2, A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews 2; MA, meta-analysis; NA, not applicable ; PICO, Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome; RoB, risk of bias;