Table 1

AMSTAR 2 quality appraisal

AuthorsPICO clearProtocol registered*Included study designs explainedComprehensive search strategy*Duplicate screeningDuplicate data extractionExcluded studies listed*Full description of included studiesRoB assessed*Funding of included studies statedAppropriate statistics (in MA)*RoB considered (in MA)RoB considered in interpretation*Explanation of heterogeneityPublication bias considered (in MA)*Conflict of interest declaredRating
Zhang et al, 202131 ++Partial+++++++++++ Critically low
NCCMT, 202117 ++Partial++++N/AN/AN/A+ Critically low
Walsh et al, 202118 +++Partial+++++N/AN/A++N/A+ Low
Kourti et al, 202141 ++Partial+++++N/AN/A+N/A+ Critically low
Ayouni et al, 202120 +Partial++Partial+++++N/AN/A++N/A+ Low
Talic et al, 202121 +Partial++Partial+++++++++++ Low
Hammerstein et al, 202128 ++Partial++++N/AN/A+N/A+ Critically low
Muhammed, 202022 ++Partial+N/AN/A+N/A Critically low
Bond et al, 202130 ++Partial+++++N/AN/A++N/A+ Low
Sharma et al, 202140 +Partial++Partial++++++++++ Critically low
Krishnaratne et al, 202242 +Partial++Partial+++++++N/AN/A++N/A+ High
Elharake et al, 202232 ++Partial++++N/AN/AN/A+ Critically low
Meherali et al, 202133 +Partial++Partial+++++N/AN/A++N/A+ Low
Nussbaumer-Streit et al, 202023 +Partial+++++++N/AN/A++N/A+ Low
Samji et al, 202134 +Partial++Partial+++++N/AN/A++N/A+ Low
Viner et al, 202024 ++Partial++N/AN/A+N/A+ Critically low
Viner et al, 202235 +Partial+++++++N/AN/A++N/A+ Low
Lehmann et al, 202236 ++Partial+++++N/AN/A++N/A Critically low
Panagouli et al, 202129 ++Partial+++++N/AN/A++N/A+ Critically low
Mendez-Brito et al, 202125 ++Partial++++N/AN/A++N/A+ Critically low
Chaabane et al, 202126 +Partial++Partial+++++N/AN/A++N/A+ Low
Chai et al, 202137 ++Partial+++++++++ Low
Suk et al, 202027 ++Partial++++N/AN/A+N/A Critically low
Vardavas et al, 202143 ++Partial++++N/AN/A+N/A+ Critically low
Chang et al, 202139 +Partial+++++++++++ Critically low
Caini et al, 202219 ++Partial++++++++++ Critically low
  • Stars indicate critical domains. SRs with 0 or 1 non-critical flaw score ‘High’, studies with multiple non-critical flaws score ‘Medium’, studies with 1 critical flaw score ‘Low’ and studies with multiple critical flaws score ‘Critically low’. SRs are awarded a '+' or '-' depending on whether they satisfy each condition. SRs are awarded a Partial+ in ‘Protocol registered’ if they register a protocol, but the protocol is not comprehensive, and a Partial+ in ‘comprehensive search strategy’ if, for example, authors search at least two databases, but no not scan included articles’ bibliographies. Full details of the AMSTAR 2 appraisal tool are available at Shea et al.14

  • AMSTAR 2, A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews 2; MA, meta-analysis; NA, not applicable ; PICO, Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome; RoB, risk of bias;