Table 3

Summary of findings table

Summary of findings:
Patient or population: Patients with atrial fibrillation
Setting:
Intervention: digital decision-support tools
Comparison: usual care
OutcomesAnticipated absolute effects* (95% CI)Relative effect (95% CI)No of participants (studies)Certainty of the evidence (GRADE)Comments
Risk with usual careRisk with digital decision-support tools
Decisional Conflict (DCS) assessed with: Decisional Conflict ScaleSMD 0.19 SD lower (0.3 lower to 0.08 lower)2167 (4 RCTs)⨁⨁⨁◯ Moderate†The evidence suggests Digital Decision Support Tools reduce Decisional Conflict slightly.
Patient Knowledge (Pt know) assessed with: Patient Knowledge Questionnaire27 per 10020 per 100 (19 to 21)Risk difference 0.72 (0.68 to 0.76)1057 (2 RCTs)⨁⨁◯◯ Low†‡Digital Decision Support Tools may result in little to no difference in patient knowledge.
  • GRADE Working Group grades of evidence high certainty: we are very confident that the true effect lies close to that of the estimate of the effect. Moderate certainty: we are moderately confident in the effect estimate: the true effect is likely to be close to the estimate of the effect, but there is a possibility that it is substantially different. Low certainty: our confidence in the effect estimate is limited: the true effect may be substantially different from the estimate of the effect. Very low certainty: we have very little confidence in the effect estimate: the true effect is likely to be substantially different from the estimate of effect.

  • *The risk in the intervention group (and its 95% CI) is based on the assumed risk in the comparison group and the relative effect of the intervention (and its 95% CI).

  • †We downgraded one level due to issues regarding risk of bias. The majority of studies had some concerns or high risk of bias.

  • ‡We downgraded one level due to issues regarding indirectness. We are uncertain of whether the questionnaires in the included studies sufficiently covered patient knowledge of different treatment options.

  • GRADE, Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation; RCTs, randomised controlled trials; SMD, standardised mean difference.