Table 2

Characteristics of included studies

CharacteristicsNumber (n=19)Included studies
Study designUncontrolled before–after study20Ang,23 Carter,24 Epstein,25 Glenski,26 Grimmond,38 Labib,27 Martinez Ruiz,28 McAlister,29 McCarthy,39 Neves,30 Patel,42 Pinder,31 Regan,32 Richter,43 Riedel,33 Tay,40 Wang,34 Wormer,35 Wyssusek,36 Zuegge37
Interrupted time series1Chambrin41
LocationUSA7Epstein,25 Glenski,26 Patel,42 Riedel,33 Wormer,35 Wang,34 Zuegge 37
UK6Carter,24 Grimmond,38 Labib,27 McCarthy,39 Pinder,31 Regan32
Australia3McAlister,29 Tay,40 Wyssusek36
France1Chambrin41
Germany1Richter43
Portugal1Neves30
Singapore1Ang23
Spain1Martinez Ruiz28
Year of publication2010–20154McCarthy,39 Riedel,33 Tay,40 Wormer35
2016–20206Carter,24 Epstein,25 Glenski,26 Regan,32 Richter,43 Zuegge37
2021–202311Ang,23 Chambrin,41 Grimmond,38 Labib,27 Martinez Ruiz,28 McAlister, 29 Neves,30 Patel,42 Pinder,31 Wang,34 Wyssusek36
SettingSingle hospital18Ang,23 Carter,24 Epstein,25 Glenski,26 Labib,27 Martinez Ruiz,28 McAlister,29 Neves,30 McCarthy,39 Patel,42 Regan,32 Richter,43 Riedel,33 Tay, 40 Wang,34 Wormer,35 Wyssusek,36 Zuegge37
Multiple hospitals3Chambrin,41 Grimmond,38 Pinder31
Target of interventionAnaesthesia12Ang,23 Carter,24 Chambrin,41 Epstein,25 Glenski,26 Martinez Ruiz,28 Patel,42 Pinder,31 Richter,43 Tay,40 Wyssusek,36 Zuegge37
Waste disposal*5Grimmond,38 Labib,27 Neves,30 Riedel,33 Wormer35
Unnecessary testing3McAlister,29 Regan,32 Wang34
Energy use*1McCarthy39
Intervention type, according to EPOC taxonomyEducational materials14Ang,23 Carter,24 Chambrin,41 Epstein,25 Glenski,26 McAlister,29 Pinder,31 Regan,32 Riedel,33 Tay,40 Wang,34 Wormer,35 Wyssusek,36 Zuegge37
Educational meetings15Ang,23 Chambrin,41 Glenski,26 McAlister,29 McCarthy,39 Neves,30 Patel,42 Pinder,31 Richter,43 Riedel,33 Tay,40 Wang,34 Wormer,35 Wyssusek,36 Zuegge37
Environmental restructuring15Ang,23 Carter,24 Epstein,25 Glenski,26 Grimmond,38 Labib,27 Martinez Ruiz,28 Neves,30 Patel,42 Pinder,31 Richter,43 Riedel,33 Tay,40 Wormer,35 Wyssusek36
Reminders8Wormer,35 Wyssusek,36
Ang,23 Carter,24 Chambrin,41 Epstein,25 Glenski,26 Pinder31
Audit and feedback7Regan,32 Zuegge,37
Carter,24 Epstein,25 Glenski,26 McCarthy,39 Neves,30 Regan32
Organisational culture7Wyssusek,36
Ang,23 Chambrin,41 Glenski,26 Pinder,31 Regan,32 Wormer35
Authority & accountability for quality of practice2Epstein,25 McAlister29
Clinical practice guidelines1Wang34
Information & communication technology1Wang34
Number of intervention componentsSingle3Grimmond,38 Labib,27 Martinez Ruiz28
Multiple18Ang,23 Carter,24 Chambrin,41 Epstein,25 Glenski,26 McAlister,29 McCarthy,39 Neves,30 Patel,42 Pinder,31 Regan,32 Richter,43 Riedel,33 Tay,40 Wang,34 Wormer,35 Wyssusek,36 Zuegge37
OutcomeGHG emissions18Ang,23 Chambrin,41 Glenski,26 Grimmond,38 Labib,27 Martinez Ruiz,28 McAlister,29 McCarthy,39 Neves,30 Patel,42 Regan,32 Richter,43 Riedel,33 Tay,31 Wang,34 Wormer35
Financial costs15Ang,23 Carter,24 Chambrin,41 Epstein,25 Labib,27 McAlister,29 McCarthy,39 Neves,30 Patel,42 Regan,32 Riedel,33 Tay,40 Wormer,35 Wyssusek,36 Zuegge37
Effectiveness20Ang,23 Carter,24 Chambrin,41 Epstein,25 Glenski,26 Grimmond,38 Labib,27 McAlister,29 McCarthy,39 Neves,30 Patel,42 Pinder,31 Regan,32 Richter,43 Riedel,33 Tay,40 Wang,34 Wormer,35 Wyssusek,36 Zuegge37
Harms1McAlister29
Acceptability1Pinder31
  • *Intervention designed primarily to reduce GHG emissions but targeted waste or energy.

  • EPOC, Effective Practice and Organisation of Care; GHG, greenhouse gas.