Table 1

Eligibility criteria for study selection

  • Any healthcare setting at any level (eg, primary, secondary), providing any service (eg, acute, sub-acute, long-term) and at any facility (eg, hospital, outpatient practice, nursing home)

Target population
  • Any healthcare staff or patients

  • Interventions specifically aimed at improving the delivery of healthcare that reduces GHG emissions

  • Interventions initiated by clinicians or health services

  • Interventions designed primarily to reduce waste, water and/or energy use or pollutants, unless the stated aim of the intervention was to reduce GHG emissions

  • No intervention

  • Usual care

  • Other intervention

  • GHG emissions

  • Financial costs

  • Effectiveness*

  • Harms†

  • Patient-relevant outcomes‡

  • Engagement§

  • Acceptability¶

Study design
  • Randomised (parallel and cluster)

  • Quasi-randomised

  • Non-randomised controlled trials

  • Interrupted time series studies

  • Controlled or uncontrolled before-after studies

  • Interrupted time series with<3 data points before and after the intervention

  • Descriptive studies

  • *eg, reduction in inhalational anaesthetic use.

  • †ie, any undesirable effects.

  • ‡eg, symptoms.

  • §ie, participant usage of implemented interventions.

  • ¶ie, intervention appropriateness.