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Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are a safe and effective treatment of acid-related disorders such as gastroesophageal reflux disease and Barrett's oesophagus. However, they may be associated with an increased risk of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI).
Kwok and colleagues conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies evaluating the association between PPI and the risk of primary or recurrent CDI. Relevant articles were identified through a comprehensive literature search including MEDLINE, EMBASE (from database inception to December 2011) and reference lists of articles retrieved from these bibliographical databases. Studies were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis if they were either case–control or cohort design, and either reported OR, risk ratios (RR) or provided sufficient data to allow manual calculation of these …
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